How to Exercise?
Sport zu treiben spielt beim Gesundbleiben eine entscheidende Rolle. Aber herauszufinden, wie man aktiver werden kann, ist gar nicht so einfach. Wenn du an körperliche Aktivität nicht gewöhnt bist, dann fange langsam an. Gehe für zehn bis 15 Minuten spazieren und arbeite dich zum 30-minütigen täglichen strammen Walken oder Joggen hoch. Versuche, zwei oder drei Mal pro Woche Kraftsportübungen einzubauen und erwäge, deine Flexibilität mit einem Yoga- oder Pilates-Kurs zu erhöhen. Wann immer du Sport treibst, solltest du auf die Grenzen deines Körpers hören. Wenn du eine medizinische Vorgeschichte hast, dann solltest du deinen Hausarzt außerdem um Rat fragen, bevor du mit dem Sport anfängst.
part 1 ⬅ Eine Fitness-Routine aufstellen
1️⃣ Passe deine Routine deinem Erfahrungslevel an. Fange langsam an, wenn du körperliche Aktivität nicht gewohnt bist und eine Sportroutine entwickeln willst. Während du langsam an Erfahrung gewinnst, kannst du versuchen, schrittweise die Intensität deines Trainings zu erhöhen.
Fange z.B. damit an, jeweils zehn bis 15 Minuten spazieren zu gehen. Arbeite dich nach ein bis zwei Wochen auf bis zu 30 Minuten hoch. Versuche außerdem, schneller zu werden. Du könntest damit anfangen, einen knappen Kilometer in 15 Minuten zu gehen. Arbeite dich dann auf 3 bis 5 km in 30 Minuten hoch.
Wenn du Kräftigungsübungen machst, dann fange mit zwei Mal acht Wiederholungen (wie etwa 8 Liegestützen) an. Füge dann ein bis zu zusätzliche Wiederholungen pro Woche ein, bis du auf zwölf bis 14 Wiederholungen kommst.14.
2️⃣ Wärme dich für fünf bis zehn Minuten vor dem Training auf. Wenn du dich aufwärmst, dann konzentriere dich auf die Muskeln, die du trainieren willst, aber mit weniger intensiven Bewegungen. Gehe zum Beispiel fünf bis zehn Minuten, bevor du joggen gehst oder deinen Rumpf trainierst.
Wenn du schwimmen gehst, dann fange zunächst langsam an und werde dann immer schneller. Vor dem Oberkörpertraining, Walking oder Joggen kannst du lockere Hampelmänner machen, um deinen Puls und deine Durchblutung zu erhöhen.
3️⃣ Versuche, täglich 30 Minuten Aerobic-Übungen zu machen. Als Faustregel solltest du täglich zumindest 30 Minuten mäßig intensive Aerobic-Übungen machen. Beispiele dafür sind unter anderem schnelles Gehen oder Joggen, Fahrradfahren oder Schwimmen.
Wenn du mäßig intensiv trainierst, sollte sich deine Herzfrequenz beschleunigen und du solltest schneller atmen. Du solltest immer noch sprechen können, aber du solltest genug außer Atmen sein, dass du nicht singen könntest.
Behalte im Hinterkopf, dass du deine Trainingszeiten aufteilen und über den ganzen Tag verteilen kannst. Jeweils fünf oder zehn Minuten aktiv zu sein ist eine gute Methode, um dich an Sport zu gewöhnen, wenn du bis dato noch nicht trainiert hast.
4️⃣ Plane zumindest zwei Mal pro Woche Krafttraining ein. Krafttraining, auch als Widerstandstraining bekannt, wird mit freien Gewichten, Widerstandsbändern oder deinem eigenen Körpergewicht betrieben, um deine Muskeln zu stärken. Wenn du gerade erst anfängst, dann versuche es mit jeweils einem Workout pro Woche für Ober- und Unterkörpertraining. Arbeite dich mit der Zeit schrittweise auf drei bis vier Kraftsport-Trainingstage in deiner wöchentlichen Routine hoch.
A sample intermediate upper body workout could be 2 sets of 30-second planks and 2 sets of 12 reps each for crunches, push-ups, dumbbell biceps curls, and dumbbell shoulder presses.
To strengthen your legs, do 2 sets of 12 reps each for squats, glute bridges, calf raises, and lunges.
Generally, rest for 30 to 60 seconds between sets. If building muscle power is your goal and you’re doing high-intensity weight lifting, resting for 3 minutes can result in greater increases in strength.
You can do strength training at home or use resistance machines at a local gym.
For instance, you could jog on Monday, do upper body strength training Tuesday, swim laps on Wednesday, do a lower body workout Thursday, take a yoga class on Friday, ride your bike Saturday, and go for a light walk on Sunday.
On strength training days, get your daily aerobic exercise by warming up and cooling down with brisk walks, doing jumping jacks, or jumping rope. Climbing stairs and going for a walk during your lunch break can help you squeeze in 5 or 10 more minutes of aerobic exercise throughout the day.
Avoid targeting the same muscle group 2 days in a row. Don’t, for instance, do biceps curls and shoulder presses on back-to-back days. Muscles need time to recover, and overworking them can lead to injury.
6️⃣ Walk for 5 to 10 minutes and stretch to cool down after workouts. Cool downs, like warm-up exercises, are a gentler forms of exercise meant to ease your body from working hard to being at rest. Cool down by walking for 5 to 10 minutes and stretching the muscles your workout targeted.
Stretch individual muscles for a total of 30 to 60 seconds. For example, you might do 3 to 4 quad stretches per leg and hold each stretch for 10 seconds.
Avoid stretching before you exercise, which poses an injury risk. Stretching after exercise, when your muscles are warm, can help them recover and improve your flexibility.
part 2 ⬅ Getting Aerobic Exercise
1️⃣ Go for a brisk walk or jog every day. Walking and jogging are great ways to stay active, especially if you’re just beginning to exercise. You could go for a 15-minute brisk walk during your lunch break, then walk or jog around your neighborhood for 15 minutes after dinner.
If you’re elderly or have a history of joint issues, jogging may be tough on your knees, hips, and ankles. Respect your body’s limits and, if necessary, stick to walking.
2️⃣ Jump rope for 5 to 15 minutes. More than just a fun game for kids, jumping rope is an excellent cardio workout. Grab a rope, and try jumping for 5 minutes straight. If you’re not used to exercising, it’s okay if you can only jump for a minute or so
If you need to stop, take a break and catch your breath. Try jumping rope for gradually longer periods of time. You could aim to add 30 seconds or a minute to your time each week until you can jump for at least 5 minutes straight.
3️⃣ Do jumping jacks for 5 to 15 minutes. Start by standing with your legs together and arms at your side. Then jump straight up as you move your legs outward and raise your arms together above your head. Return to the starting position, then repeat.
As with jumping rope, take a break if you feel too winded, and try to gradually increase the length of time you can do jumping jacks.
4️⃣ Go for bike rides. When you’re just starting off, go for easy bike rides around your neighborhood, on a local bike trail, or at a park. At first, try cycling for around 3 miles (4.8 km) in 30 minutes, then gradually increase your speed and distance.
As you get used to being active, try to work your way up to 5 miles (8.0 km) in 30 minutes. Eventually, aim to cover 4 miles (6.4 km) in 15 minutes.
5️⃣ Swim laps at your local pool or fitness center. Swimming is a great full body workout, and it can help add variety to your routine. Try swimming laps for 20 minutes, or for as long as you can without getting too winded. It’s okay if you need to take a break, especially when you’re just getting used to exercising.
In addition to swimming laps, you could do water aerobics or just walk around in a pool. These are good options for people with joint problems or those who are significantly overweight.
6️⃣ Try running once you’re used to being active. Go for runs around your neighborhood, or look for a local indoor or outdoor track. Try to run for 15 to 30 minutes straight, but don’t push yourself too hard if you’re just starting to get more active.
Each week, try to add another minute to your running time. Eventually, see if you can run 1 mile (1.6 km) straight, track your time, and try to cut down your time each time you run.
Running might be tough on your legs if you’re elderly or have a history of bone or joint issues. Remember to respect your body’s limits.
7️⃣ Challenge yourself with interval training. Interval training involves alternating high-intensity and low-intensity exercises, and it’s a great way to burn calories. Since it involves high-intensity activities, such as running or sprinting, it’s best to include interval training in your routine if you’re already used to regular exercise. For a good, basic interval session, try doing a sprint-walk routine.
Warm up by walking briskly for 5 to 10 minutes, then jog for 5 to 10 minutes. After jogging, sprint for 30 to 60 seconds, then jog for 5 minutes. Alternate running for 30 to 60 seconds with 5 minutes of jogging at least 2 to 3 times, then cool down by walking for 5 to 10 minutes.
part 3 ⬅ Learning Strengthening Exercises
1️⃣ Do push-ups to strengthen your arms and chest. Lie face down with your palms flat on the floor by your shoulders. Then, keeping your head, neck, back, and legs aligned, exhale and lift your body by extending your arms. Your hands and toes should support your body weight
Straighten your arms, but don’t lock your elbows. Hold yourself up for a second, then inhale as you slowly lower yourself back down so that your nose nearly touches the ground. Repeat the steps to complete 2 sets of 12 reps.
To mix up your routine, set your palms at a wider distance as you perform push-ups. You could also hold yours arms close to your body as you do push-ups to shift the work from your chest to your triceps.
2️⃣ Try to hold a plank for 30 to 45 seconds. Start by lying face-down on the floor, as if you were about to do a push-up. Raise your body and support your weight on your forearms and toes. Try to hold the pose for at least 30 seconds, lower yourself to the floor, rest for 30 to 60 seconds, then repeat.
Keep your head, neck, and back in a straight line as you hold the pose. Avoid looking up; keep your head in a neutral position so you face the floor.
If 30 seconds isn’t challenging, try holding the plank for 1 minute or more.
Remember to keep breathing normally as you hold the plank.
3️⃣ Work your abdominal muscles with crunches. Start by lying on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor. Place your hands across your chest or behind your head, engage your ab muscles, and exhale as you slowly raise your upper torso off of the floor.
Lift your torso until your shoulder blades are off of the floor, hold for 1 to 2 seconds, then inhale as you slowly lower yourself back to the ground. Repeat the steps to complete 2 sets of 12 reps.
Use slow, controlled motions to avoid injury and make your muscles work harder.
If you place your hands behind your head, do not use them to pull up your head and neck. To avoid injury, just rest your fingertips on the back of your head, or cross your hands over your chest.
4️⃣ Target your glutes and core muscles with bridges. Lie on your back with your knees bent, feet flat on the floor, and your arms by your sides. Inhale, then exhale as you engage your core muscles and slowly raise your hips and lower back off of the floor. Lift yourself until your shoulders and knees form a straight line, and keep your arms flat on the floor to keep your balance.
Hold the lifted position for 1 to 2 seconds, then inhale as you slowly lower yourself back into starting position. Repeat the steps, and complete 2 sets of 12 bridges.
To increase difficulty, try holding yourself in the raised position, then raise and extend 1 leg straight. Lower the leg back to the floor, repeat on the other side, then lower yourself to the floor.
5️⃣ Strengthen your legs by doing squats. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, toes pointing slightly outward, back straight, and your arms by your sides or crossed over your chest. Keeping your torso aligned and core muscles engaged, slowly bend your knees and lower your hips as if you were going to sit in a chair.
Stick your rear end out as you lower your hips so your weight is back on your heels. Keep your knees and toes aligned, and avoid bending your knees past your toes.
Continue lowering yourself until your thighs are roughly parallel with the floor, then push your feet into the floor through your heels to raise yourself back to the starting position.
Inhale as you lower yourself, and exhale as you exert your legs and lift yourself. Repeat the steps to complete 2 sets of 12 squats.
6️⃣ Try doing burpees for a full body workout. Start by standing with your feet shoulder-width apart, then jump and drop to a crouched position. Place your palms flat on the floor and thrust your legs back to enter the push-up position, and do one push-up
After the push-up, pull your legs back to the crouched position, and then jump straight up with your hands raised to return to the standing position. Repeat to complete 2 sets of 12 burpees.
7️⃣ Invest in free weights or a gym membership. While you can do plenty of strengthening exercises without weights, dumbbells, barbells, and resistance machines can add intensity to your workouts. To avoid injury, start with lighter weights, and avoid trying to push your body beyond its limits.
Choose weights that challenge you, but still allow you to maintain proper form. Watch yourself in the mirror, and make sure your reps are smooth, steady, and controlled. If you look out of balance or struggle to make it through a set, choose lighter weights.
Try doing 2 sets of 12 biceps curls. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, and hold a dumbbell weight in each hand by your sides. Bend your elbows, keeping them close to your side, to lift the dumbbells to your shoulders. Inhale as you lower back to the starting position, and exhale when you exert your biceps.
Do shoulder presses by raising the dumbbells by your shoulders with your elbows bent. Exhale as you extend your arms straight above your head, bring the dumbbells back to your shoulders, and repeat to complete 2 sets of 12.
Consult a trainer or experienced friend to ensure you use proper form. If you use resistance machines at the gym, have a trainer instruct you on proper use.
part 4 ⬅ Boosting Your Balance and Flexibility
1️⃣ Stretch after you’ve warmed up your muscles. You should only stretch muscles that have been active and received increased blood flow. Stretching cold, inactive muscles poses an injury risk. Whenever you stretch, hold the pose steadily instead of bouncing in and out of it. Inhale as you move into a stretch, and exhale as you hold the pose.
To stretch your hamstrings, sit on the floor with your legs straight in front of you. Reach toward your toes as far as you can until you feel a stretch in the backs of your legs, then hold the stretch for 15 to 20 seconds.
To stretch your quads, stand and use a chair or wall for support. Bring your right foot toward your rear end, grab your toes with your right hand, and gently pull until you feel a stretch in the front of your thigh. Hold for 15 to 20 seconds, then repeat on your left leg.
For a simple shoulder stretch, gently pull your right elbow across the front of your body towards the opposite shoulder until you feel a stretch in your right shoulder and back. Hold for 15 to 20 seconds, then repeat on your other arm.
Stretch your calves by standing next to a wall, then place your palms flat against it at shoulder height. Keeping your arms straight and feet on the floor, extend your right leg back, and bend your left knee slightly. Press into the wall until you feel a stretch in your right calf, hold the pose for 15 to 20 seconds, then repeat on the other side.
2️⃣ Start doing yoga. In addition to improving balance and flexibility, yoga can boost concentration and help you keep stress levels in check. You could take classes at a local gym, community center, or yoga studio, or practice at home using online or DVD guides.
From yoga to tai chi, taking a group class is a great way to stick with an exercise routine. Adding a social component can make staying active more fun, and you might feel a greater need to hold yourself accountable.
3️⃣ Try taking up Pilates. Pilates is a series of movements inspired by yoga and dance that combines aerobic, balance, and flexibility training. Like yoga, you could find a local Pilates group to practice with or take a class at a local gym or studio
While group classes might liven up your routine, you can also look for Pilates DVDs or online video guides.
4️⃣ Stay active by dancing. From ballet to flamenco, dancing can be a rigorous form of exercise. It can improve your flexibility, offer aerobic or endurance training, and boost your coordination. Find a local group to practice with or take a class from a local gym or community center.
Learning how to line dance or attending a dance-exercise class might be fun, but you could also put on your favorite tunes and dance around your house.
5️⃣ Add tai chi to your exercise routine. Tai chi is a Chinese martial art that involves sequences of slow movements. It can help improve your balance, flexibility, and concentration, and it’s a good way to manage stress. Since it’s a low impact form of exercise, it’s a good option if you’re elderly, have a history of medical issues, or have recently suffered an injury.
Look for tai chi classes at a local gym or studio, or find online video guides.
part 5 ⬅ Exercising Safely
1️⃣ Check with your doctor before starting an exercise routine. It’s especially important to consult a doctor if you have a history of heart, bone, muscle, joint, or other medical conditions. Ask your doctor for advice on how to safely start exercising and to recommend exercises that benefit your specific condition.
If you experience pain, dizziness, inability to catch your breath, or any other concerning symptoms during exercise, you should talk to a doctor.
2️⃣ Drink lots of water before, during, and after exercising. Try to drink about 2 cups (470 mL) of water before you exercise, and 1 cup (240 mL) every 15 to 20 minutes during your workout. Your body will need extra water to help your muscles work and to replace the fluids lost as you sweat
Sports drinks can also help you replace salts and minerals lost in sweat. However, if you’re trying to lose weight, limit your consumption of sports drinks, as they contain lots of sugar and can add extra calories to your diet.
It’s also wise to eat a healthy source of protein or complex carbs after exercising. Examples include fruit, nuts, a peanut butter sandwich, lean meat, cheese, whole grain crackers, or a protein bar.
3️⃣ Choose clothes that suit your activity. In general, wear clothes that won’t restrict your movement or blood flow. For some forms of exercise, like biking, you might want to wear form-fitting clothes, but they still shouldn’t be too tight. Looser workout clothes are better for strength training, brisk walking, and sports such as basketball or soccer.
Make sure your clothes suit the weather. Wear short sleeves and light, breathable fabrics in hot temperatures, and wear layers if it’s cold.
4️⃣ Stop exercising if you experience pain. “No pain, no gain” is not the advice to follow. If you feel any soreness or sharp pain, stop the activity. Do your best to rest the affected area until the pain starts to subside.
If you believe you’ve injured yourself, you might be able to treat it at home. Rest, apply ice for 20 minutes every 3 to 4 hours, compress the injured area with athletic tape, and try to keep it raised around heart level. To manage pain, take over-the-counter medication, such as ibuprofen
Seek medical attention if you hear a pop, experience severe pain, have uncontrolled bleeding, can’t move or bear weight on a joint, or if mild to moderate symptoms don’t improve within 1 to 2 weeks.
5️⃣ Wear athletic shoes that offer support and cushioning. When you’re out shoe shopping, look for athletic shoes with sturdy rubber soles. Good shoes shouldn’t bend in half, so hold a shoe by the toe and heel, and gently try to see if the soles resist pressure.
Shoes should fit comfortably; they shouldn’t feel tight, and your toes should reach the shoes’ tips without being constricted. Always try on both shoes of a pair when checking their fit.
Go with shoes that match the activity you’re doing, such as running shoes or basketball shoes. Different activities put stress on your feet in different ways. For instance, running shoes provide the flexibility required for a proper running step, but lack the ankle support needed for tennis or basketball